Although the red fox tends to kill smaller predators, including other fox species, it is vulnerable to attack from larger predators, such as wolves, coyotes, golden jackals and medium- and large-sized felines.The species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology.The remaining lower surface of the body is dark, brown or reddish.The upper parts of the limbs are rusty reddish, while the paws are black.Gene mapping demonstrates that red foxes in North America have been isolated from their Old World counterparts for over 400,000 years, thus raising the possibility that speciation has occurred, and that the previous binomial name of Vulpes fulva may be valid. They have a stride of 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) when walking at a normal pace.In the far north, red fox fossils have been found in Sangamonian deposits in the Fairbanks District and Medicine Hat. North American red foxes are generally lightly built, with comparatively long bodies for their mass and have a high degree of sexual dimorphism.Because of its widespread distribution and large population, the red fox is one of the most important furbearing animals harvested for the fur trade.Too small to pose a threat to humans, it has extensively benefited from the presence of human habitation, and has successfully colonised many suburban and urban areas. vulpes by its smaller size, proportionately smaller skull and teeth, and coarser fur.
Due to its presence in Australia, it is included among the list of the "world's 100 worst invasive species".Apart from its large size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt quickly to new environments.Despite its name, the species often produces individuals with other colourings, including albinos and melanists.Fossils dating from the Wisconsian are present in 25 sites in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Missouri, New Mexico, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming. British red foxes are heavily built, but short, while continental European red foxes are closer to the general average among red fox populations.Although they ranged far south during the Wisconsinan, the onset of warm conditions shrank their range toward the north, and have only recently reclaimed their former American ranges because of human-induced environmental changes. In the typical red morph, their coats are generally bright reddish-rusty with yellowish tints.
The feet and head are brown The melanistic form of the Eurasian red fox.