Even though the mother’s role as main parent has not changed, male parental leave is claimed by its supporters to transform the traditionally gendered father practices and to create a social morality in relation to partners and children.
Psychologists however consider that the allegedly positive effects of male parental leave are not supported by research, and warn that it might have negative effects.
The only Nordic country that does not provide fathers with a quota is Denmark.
The three most common models of funding are social insurance/social security (where employees, employers, or taxpayers in general contribute to a specific public fund), employer liability (where the employer must pay the employee for the length of leave), and mixed policies that combine both social security and employer liability.
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Datta Gupta, Smith, & Verneer found in 2008 that, while publicly funded parental leave has benefits, it is very expensive to fund and question if it is the most cost-effective use of funds.
Social norms have historically not included child care in the main responsibilities of fathers.
The effects of parental leave on the labor market include an increase in employment, changes in wages, and fluctuations in the rate of employees returning to work.
Studies differ in how this helps return to work after taking time off.
Some see children as responsible for supporting all those in older generations in the society (not just the child's specific parents); their earnings are expected not to be saved for the children's own old age, but to be spent on the earlier generations' demand for social security and pensions for which there was inadequate savings.